Pak One Health Alliance

During 2019-21, Pak One Health Alliance® has accomplished a Mapping and Gap Analysis study of Antimicrobial Resistance. The technical and financial assistance for this study was extended by the Fleming Fund – UK and Ending Pandemics – USA. Among others, Policy & Strategic Planning Unit (PSPU) Department of Health – Punjab and the University of Health Sciences – Lahore were the key partners from Pakistan.

Background: Antibiotics have been a founding stone of modern medicine. Use of antimicrobials has enabled the implementation of novel treatment modalities ranging from
cardiac bypass surgeries to joint replacements and bone marrow transplants. Management of
infectious complications would not have been possible without antibiotics. Antimicrobials have
also been instrumental in the control of infections in farm animals and in crops, allowing an
increase in agricultural output and providing food security.

AMR is a grave threat to human health and economic development (O’Neill, 2018). The overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in humans, animals and plants have accelerated the natural evolutionary processes by which microbes become resistant to antimicrobial treatments.

Today, some infections have even been rendered untreatable by existing antimicrobials. AMR

  • When human and animal health professionals over prescribe antibiotics;
  • When people don’t take antibiotics as directed;
  • Due to poor hygiene and a lack of infection prevention and control e.g. Not washing hands properly;
  • Due to people travelling around the world, spreading resistant bacteria;

Surveillance of AMR tracks changes in microbial populations, permits the early detection of
resistant strains of public health importance, and supports the prompt notification and
investigation of outbreaks. Surveillance findings are needed to inform clinical therapy
decisions, to guide policy recommendations, and to assess the impact of resistance
containment interventions.