Pak One Health Alliance

Vector-Borne Disease: Disease that results from an infection transmitted to humans and other animals by blood-feeding anthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas.


The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons.

The CCHF virus is transmitted to people either by tick bites or through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and immediately after slaughter. The majority of cases have occurred in people involved in the livestock industry, such as agricultural workers, slaughterhouse workers and veterinarians.

Onset of symptoms is sudden, with fever, myalgia, (muscle ache), dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, backache, headache, sore eyes and photophobia (sensitivity to light). There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea’, abdominal pain and sore throat early on, followed by sharp mood swings and confusion. After two to four days, the agitation may be replaced by sleepiness, depression and lassitude, and the abdominal pain may localize to the upper right quadrant, with detectable hepatomegaly (liver enlargement).


Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash.

Most patients feel better within a week. However, joint pain can be severe and disabling and may persist for months. People at risk for more severe disease include newborns infected around the time of birth, older adults (≥65 years), and people with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

 3.Dengue fever

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever and flu-like symptoms. The severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause serious bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death

Researchers are working on dengue fever vaccines. For now, in areas where dengue fever is common, the best ways to prevent infection are to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes and to take steps to reduce the mosquito population


  • Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the Leishmania This parasite typically lives in infected sand flies. You can contract leishmaniasis from a bite of an infected sand fly.
  • The sand flies that carry the parasite typically reside in tropical and subtropical environments. Fatal epidemics have occurred in areas of Asia, East Africa, and South America.
  • People can carry some species of Leishmania for long periods without becoming ill. Symptoms depend on the form of the disease.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

  • The main symptom of this condition is painless skin ulcers. Cutaneous symptoms may appear a few weeks after being bitten by an infected sand fly. However, sometimes symptoms won’t appear for months or years.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

  • In people with the mucocutaneous form of the disease, symptoms usually appear one to five years after the skin lesions. These are primarily ulcers in their mouth and nose or on their lips.
  • Other symptoms may include, runny or stuffy nose, nosebleeds, difficulty breathing

Visceral leishmaniasis

  • Symptoms often don’t appear for months after the bite with this type of leishmaniasis. Most cases are apparent two to six months after the infection occurred. Common signs and symptoms include: weight loss, weakness, fever that lasts for weeks or months, enlarged spleen, enlarged liver, decreased production of blood cells, bleeding, other infections, swollen lymph nodes


Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Four kinds of malaria parasites infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. In addition, a type of malaria that naturally infects macaques in Southeast Asia, also infects humans, causing malaria that is transmitted from animal to human (“zoonotic” malaria).

Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness, including shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red blood cells. If not promptly treated, the infection can become severe and may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death

 6.Zika virus disease

The Zika  virus is most often spread to people through mosquito bites, primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Most people infected with the Zika virus have no signs and symptoms. Some people have mild fever, rash and muscle pain. In rare cases, the Zika virus may cause brain or nervous system complications, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, even in people who never show symptoms of infection. Infection with the Zika virus is also called Zika, Zika fever or Zika virus disease.

Researchers are working on a vaccine for the Zika virus. For now, the best way to prevent infection is to avoid mosquito bites and reduce mosquito habitats.

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