Pak One Health Alliance

These are the ones caused by pathogenic microbes spread via contaminated water.


Amebiasis is an infection of the intestines with a parasite  called Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite is an amoeba , a single-celled organism. People can get this parasite by eating or drinking something that’s contaminated with it. In many cases, the parasite that causes amebiasis lives in a person’s large intestine without causing any symptoms. Other times, it causes, diarrhea (which may be bloody), stomach pains, cramping, nausea, loss of appetite, fever. In rare cases, it can spread into other organs such as the liver, lungs, and brain. For some people, symptoms of amebiasis can begin within days to weeks of swallowing contaminated food or water. For others, symptoms can take months to appear.


Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. People can get sick when they swallow food or water contaminated with cholera bacteria. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe and life-threatening.

About 1 in 10 people with cholera will experience severe symptoms, which, in the early stages, include, profuse watery diarrhea, sometimes described as “rice-water stools, vomiting, thirst, leg cramps, restlessness or irritability

3.Hepatitis (A&E)

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver’s ability to function. You’re most likely to get hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with a person or object that’s infected. Mild cases of hepatitis A don’t require treatment. Most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage. hepatitis signs and symptoms can include, Fatigue, Sudden nausea and vomiting, Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially on the upper right side beneath your lower ribs (by your liver), Clay-colored bowel movements, Loss of appetite, Low-grade fever, Dark urine, Joint pain, Yellowing of the skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice), Intense itching.

Hepatitis E is a virus that infects your liver. It can cause your liver to swell up. You can catch it if you drink or eat something that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has the virus. You might not have any. If you do have symptoms, they may start anywhere from 2 to 6 weeks after your infection. They may include, Mild fever, Feeling very tired, Less hunger, Feeling sick to your stomach, Throwing up, Belly pain, Dark pee, Light-colored poop, Skin rash or itching, Joint pain, Yellowish skin or eyes.

4. Typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in developed countries. It is still a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children.

Contaminated food and water or close contact with an infected person cause typhoid fever. Signs and symptoms usually include, High fever, Headache, Stomach pain, Constipation or diarrhea Without treatment, you may, Become delirious, Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what’s known as the typhoid state  Life-threatening complications often develop at this time, In some people, signs and symptoms may return up to two weeks after the fever has subsided.

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