Pak One Health Alliance

Diseases caused by spread from animals to humans are known as zoonotic diseases or zoonosis. Here is the list of some known zoonotic diseases.


It is primarily a disease of domesticated wild animals, herbivores such as sheep, cows, horses, goats. It is caused by Bacillus anthraces. Anthrax symptoms vary depending on the type. Symptoms typically appear within one week of exposure. Sometimes, signs of inhalation anthrax aren’t noticeable for two months. Depending on the type, symptoms include:

  • Chest pain and trouble breathing.
  • Fatigue.
  • Fever and profuse sweating.
  • Headache or muscle aches.
  • Itchy blisters or bumps.
  • Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.
  • Skin ulcer (sore) with a black center.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

2.Bovine tuberculosis

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease of animals caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium bovis, (M.bovis) which is closely related to the bacteria that cause human and avian tuberculosis. This disease can affect practically all mammals, causing a general state of illness, coughing and eventual death.

Mycobacterium bovis is not the major cause of human tuberculosis, which is caused by M. tuberculosis, but humans are susceptible to bovine TB. Humans can be infected both by drinking raw milk from infected cattle, or by inhaling infective droplets. It is estimated in some countries that up to ten percent of human tuberculosis is due to Bovine TB.

TB usually has a prolonged course, and symptoms take months or years to appear. The usual clinical signs include: – weakness, – loss of appetite, – weight-loss, – fluctuating fever, – intermittent hacking cough, – diarrhea, – large prominent lymph nodes. However, the bacteria can also lie dormant in the host without causing disease.


Brucellosis is caused by a type of bacteria called Brucella that spreads from animals to people. Most commonly, people are infected by eating raw or unpasteurized dairy products. Sometimes, the bacteria that cause brucellosis can spread through the air or through direct contact with infected animals.

Signs and symptoms of brucellosis may include fever, joint pain and fatigue. The infection can usually be treated with antibiotics. However, treatment takes several weeks to months.


Rabies is caused by the rabies virus. Infected animals have the virus in their saliva. The virus enters the body through broken skin or the eyes, nose, or mouth, and travels through nerves to the brain. There it multiplies and causes inflammation and damage.

The first symptoms of rabies can appear from a few days to more than a year after the bite happens. At first, there’s a tingling, prickling, or itching feeling around the bite area. A person also might have flu-like symptoms such as a fever, headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, nausea, and tiredness. After a few days, neurological symptoms develop, including, irritability or aggressiveness, excessive movements or agitation, confusion, bizarre or strange thoughts, or hallucinations, muscle spasms and unusual postures, seizures (convulsions), weakness or paralysis (when a person cannot move some part of the body), extreme sensitivity to bright lights, sounds, or touch


Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food. Possible signs and symptoms include, Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal cramps, Diarrhea, Fever, Chills, Headache, Blood in the stool. Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last two to seven days. Diarrhea may last up to 10 days, although it may take several months before bowels return to normal.

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